The most restrictive anti-abortion measure in the US would leave doctors facing 10 years behind bars for attempting the procedure and up to 99 years in prison for actually terminating a pregnancy.
The 25 to 6 vote by the Alabama Senate comes amid a wave of bills in Republican states across the US.
Emboldened by the Trump administration, the goal is to challenge the landmark 1973 Roe v Wade Supreme Court ruling that legalised abortion in America.
Under the Alabama bill, the only exception would be when the mother’s life is at serious risk, for an ectopic pregnancy and if the “unborn child has a lethal anomaly.”
Democrats re-introduced an amendment to exempt rape and incest victims, but the motion was voted down by 11-21.
The southern state’s House of Representatives has already passed the bill by 74 votes to 3 and now the Republican Governor Kay Ivey, who is a pro-life supporter, has six days to sign it into law.
The abortion ban led to an outcry from women’s groups and pro-choice advocates.
Staci Fox, of Planned Parenthood Southeast Advocates, called the vote “a dark day for women in Alabama and across this country.
“Even the authors of this bill know that it is blatantly unconstitutional and wouldn’t stand up in court.”
She said Alabama politicians would “forever live in infamy for this vote and we will make sure that every woman knows who to hold accountable.”
If it becomes law as expected, the bill is expected to be challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union .
Alabama lawmaker Terri Collins, a Republican sponsor of the law, said: “Our bill says that baby in the womb is a person.”
Another Alabama Republican, Senator Clyde Chambliss, added that the reason for the law change is “so that we can go directly to the Supreme Court to challenge Roe versus Wade.”
Eric Johnston, head of the Alabama Pro-life Coalition who helped draft the legislation, defended the decision to reject the amendment to exempt victims of rape and incest.
“Regardless of how the conception takes place, the product is a child, and so we’re saying that that unborn child is a person entitled to protection of law,” he told CNN.
“So if, be it a rape or incest conception, then it would be impossible to ask a judge which of these is protected by law and which is not.”
Legislation has been introduced to restrict abortion in 16 US states this year.
Georgia recently passed the so-called “Heartbeat Bill” that bars abortion after a fetal heartbeat is detected at around six weeks.
The Alabama bill goes one step further, banning abortions at any time. Under the law, a woman who has an abortion would not be criminally liable.
President Trump, who has appointed two conservative judges to the US Supreme Court, said in 1999 he “hated the concept of abortion” but described himself as “very pro-choice.”